Thursday, February 20, 2020
Thomas Edison - Research Paper Example Edison obtained the majority of his educational materials from The Cooper Union, which specialized in supplying higher education materials and instruction for students. Through his education, Edison became interested in various branches of science, which played a role in his later career as an experimenter and inventor. Growing up, Edison held a variety of odd jobs to increase his income. While living in Michigan, he made a modest salary by selling candy and newspapers on the trains that ran through his city. He also sold vegetables to help his family with their expenses. EdisonÃ¢â¬â¢s first stable job came after he saved a little boy from being hit by a runaway train. The station agent, J.U. MacKenzie, who was also the father of the little boy, was so appreciative of EdisonÃ¢â¬â¢s actions that he trained Edison to be a telegraph operator. Edison spent many years in this position. When he was nineteen, he moved to Kentucky where he received a boost in his career by being given a job with the Associated Press news wire. During his career on the news wire, Edison made sure that he always received the night shift so that he would be able to work, read, and experiment. However, on one particular night, EdisonÃ¢â¬â¢s attention on his experimenting ended up costing him his job when a lead-acid battery he was playing with spilled sulfuric acid onto the floor, which then leaked through the floorboards and spilled onto the desk of his boss below. Edison was immediately fired upon arriving at work the following morning. However, despite losing his job, one good thing came from EdisonÃ¢â¬â¢s time as a telegraph operator. While working, he met Franklin Pope, another telegrapher and an inventor himself. Pope allowed Edison to work out of the basement of his home, which allowed Edison the space he needed for his first two inventions, a stock ticker and the electric vote recorder that was officially patented on June 1, 1869 (Pretzer, 1989). When Edison was twenty-four , he married Mary Stilwell. He met her while she was working at one of his shops. Together they had three children, Marion, Thomas Jr., and William. Mary died thirteen years later from a brain tumor; two years later, Edison married again, this time to Mina Miller, who was almost half of EdisonÃ¢â¬â¢s age and the daughter of a famous inventor. They also had three children, including Charles and Theodore, both of whom went on to follow in their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s footsteps as inventors. Mina outlived her husband, dying in 1947 from natural causes. Thomas Edison became most known for his numerous inventions, obtaining over one thousand patents in the United States during his lifetime, as well as many patents in Germany, France, and the United Kingdom. As previously mentioned, among EdisonÃ¢â¬â¢s first inventions were a stock ticker and an electric vote recorder. He also invented numerous telegraph machines and improved on telegraph machines that had already been invented, such as inve nting the quadruplex telegraph, which made it possible to transmit four messages at once. He also invented the electric pen, which was a device used for copying. However, regardless of these first useful inventions, Edison first became known for his invention of the phonograph in 1877, which is the first record player. Even though the phonograph had very poor sound quality and could only be used a few times, the public was taken back by this surprising, wonderful invention, giving Edison the nickname of the Wizard of Menlo Park. Edison spent a few years perfecting his original phonograph,
Saturday, February 8, 2020
The relationship between discrimination and economics - Research Paper Example ls of Thomas Sowell (1983) and Walter Williams (1982), Majewsky suggested that markets minimize discrimination and state intervention that retards economic progress of racial and cultural minorities. Several myths were presented against historical examination as follows: Myth 1: Discrimination leads to poor economic performance by an ethnic group. Fact: Considered as axiomatic, the myth mentioned contradicts historical examples. Discriminated groups like the Chinese were despised in Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, but today, they control about 70 to 85% of retail in said countries (Majewski, 1988). This, too, can be said of Jews in the West. Ã¢â¬Å"From the Roman Empire, through the Middle Ages to the Nazi holocaust, the Jews have endured more religious persecution than any other ethnic minority,Ã¢â¬ but through hard work, entrepreneurship and education, were able to prosper in most areas around the globe (Majewski, 1998, 23). The second myth was that p oor economic performance by an ethnic group was attributed to discrimination. In reality, low income below national average and poor representation in professional occupations among ethnic minorities are prevalent throughout the world. This may not be easily attributed to current practices of discrimination as Majewski (1998) suggested. Another factor that has placed minorities to their marginal status includes banishment from the lands they occupied by colonizers which in turn have given the occupied lands as well as established businesses to their heirs. In this argument, Majewski (1988) presented the different performance levels of three black groups: descendants of immigrants from the West Indies, descendants of free persons of color, and descendants of slaves freed during the Civil War. Among... This paper presents careful consideration of the discrimination problem, of the theories and the economics of discrimination. The factors that affect or influence the prevalence of the practice of discrimination are being considered in the paper. Throughout history, many points of views about understanding the economics of discrimination have been forwarded. Economically, discrimination is a practice to maintain economic status of those who are dominant. They practice discrimination to sustain their advantage. However, current global market conditions now provide many individuals and non-dominant classes bigger chance at performing better economically. Policy should now focus on empowering more individuals to become better economic performers. In many countries especially the democratic ones, the various rights and prerogatives of individuals are protected by laws so that preferences in many matters may not be legally questioned. Many practices and choices of an individual are attributed to his rights and privileges. Where pure discrimination is practiced, employers may be offered lower wages by the workers discriminated upon. When this happens, the minority wage will be lower at first but eventually, the market process with equalize their wage rates. Employers that hire minority workers at lower wage will make above-average profits. This will attract new firms in the industry that will hire the minority workers at slightly higher offers in order to attract them. This will even out the wage disparity over time
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun - contemporary artist - Research Paper Example The paper "Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun - contemporary artist" concerns the art of Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun. Now this kind of art is called propaganda. Many contemporary artists, though, are again turning to art as protest, incorporating political statements within the frames of their artworks and striving to encourage a more humanitarian, sustainable approach to modern life. Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun is no exception to this group of artists, although he may be considered more political than most. Like many artists at work today, a great deal of Yuxweluptun's art can be associated with the popular culture movements, but it is also heavily informed by modern politics and ancient legends. To understand Yuxweluptan's work, such as "The Impending Nisga'a Deal," it is helpful to know some background information about the artist and the event that inspired the work. Yuxweluptun is a Native American, his father is from the Cowichan Salish and his mother from the Okanagan, which had a strong i mpact on his art. He was born in 1957 and grew up mostly around the Vancouver area of Canada, giving him a very contemporary, modern viewpoint to his family's ancient roots as they were heavily involved in tribal issues. "He is deeply connected to his heritage as a man of mixed Okanagan and Coast Salish ancestry but cannot separate himself from the larger, non-Native society in which he now lives. He is an urban Indian, trained at the Emily Carr College of Art and Design, and his art partakes of conflicting traditions.
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Ethnic group Essay Race in America is one of those subjects that scholars rarely broach and are heavily criticized for these omissions by their constituents. For this reason, the subject of race and urbanization felt a proper choice for this final paper. Following, we will incorporate data from multiple sources including Khaled HosseiniÃ¢â¬â¢s The Kite Runner, a novel that examines the harrowing trials of different groups in Afghanistan and what happens to the ones lucky enough to escape the violence of their homeland into the safety net of American soil; in an attempt to show the inalienable link between race and urbanization. This discussion on urbanization and race in American will also include a brief discussion on classism. Classism is a part of the structural organization of society that can be measured as part of the contributing factors to the socioeconomic divisiveness experienced in this urbanized world. Some argue that gentrification, in all of its wonders is class based. Others argue it more a matter of ethnicity and race, both may be correct. Nevertheless, the issue of race, as aforementioned should be granted a closer look. By examining the ideas and experiences of anthropologists and sociologists past and present this paper will attempt to specify on how classism, racism, and urbanization are connected. Growing Cities and Ghettos The Industrial Revolution sparked an enormous wave of migrants and immigrants into American cities creating an urban ecology. Chapter 3 of the Giddens et. al. text, describes the social movement from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft; from a community based ideology in society to a more individualized world. Afghanistan is an agriculturally based society. Urbanization is a global process that draws people away from rural areas and into the cities. Once in those cities, people tend to gravitate to areas that are inhabited by people of their same cultural fabric. In discussing theories of urbanization, gentrification and displacement, John Bentacur (2010) in Gentrification and Community Fabric in Chicago points out how people are drawn to areas that have a cultural/ethnic connectivity, Ã¢â¬Å"immigrants with different characteristics compete for space until they get accommodated with alike others in locations that correspond to their competitive strengthsÃ¢â¬ (p 384). In the novel, The Kite Runner, Amir and his father make the arduous migration from Kabul, Afghanistan to Fremont, California. Their low income neighborhood of Fremont is ethnically diverse but with a notable concentration of Afghani residents. It makes sense that when people leave their countries of origin to settle in a new place, they will be drawn to people and areas that are familiar to them. Even with familiarity problems arise, urban studies reveal several difficulties that plague densely populated urban neighborhoods; poverty, crime and dilapidated conditions to name a few. In Afghanistan Baba, AmirÃ¢â¬â¢s father, was rich and even wielded some power for being a respected business man and serving the community by creating an orphanage that would later be destroyed by the Taliban regime. In America, there would be no such accolades to speak of for their family. In fact, they would live in a type of poverty, they had never experienced nor hardly imagined. They would experience the existence that many black Americans face with no end in sight. A growing world population combined with globalization and the heightened mobility that comes with it has led to the creation of cities and a scramble for affordable housing. Gentrification also known as Ã¢â¬Ëurban regenerationÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëre-urbanizationÃ¢â¬â¢ is the process that happens in a community when it becomes urbanized and consists of the higher income families moving into lower income areas. During this process demographic changes are notable; in America, gentrification is notably marked by white families moving into black neighborhoods. Race and Ethnicity America is a multicultural nation. Our history of slavery created the black and white groups and the immigrant populations from around the world contributes to a high variety of culture and ethnic background. The macro-sociological issue of race and ethnicity has been the source of much debate and discussion. The reason for this is that the issue of race has been the root cause of social and political turmoil. Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton provide the backdrop in history when segregation by race was created in America in their book American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Massey and Denton edify that racial segregation was not always a fact of life in American society and that in fact; blacks and whites lived in close proximity to each other, albeit in the alley ways of the big homes occupied by their white neighbors, Ã¢â¬Å"industrialization in the north unleashed a set of social, economic and technological changes that dramatically altered the urban environment in ways that promoted segregation between social groupsÃ¢â¬ (1993:19-26). Urbanization and technological advancement (causing blacks in the south to migrate to northern cities by the tens of thousands) would be the foundation for residential segregation where blacks and other minorities would be relegated to the outskirts of town. Black ghettos would remain isolated from society in a manner that was rarely, experienced by the European immigrants that came to this country during industrialization. Blacks and later, Latinos, would be destined to live isolated and neglected from social organizations and deprived from many of the benefits enjoyed by white communities with little hope of escape, Ã¢â¬Å"not only was the segregation of European ethnic groups lower, it was also temporary. Whereas Europeans isolation indices began to drop shortly after 1920, the spatial isolation characteristics of blacks had become a permanent feature of the residential structure of large American cities by 1940Ã¢â¬ (Massey and Denton 1993:57). In America, race and ethnicity is more clearly defined than in places like Afghanistan. According to data gathered from the PBS News Hour website, Afghanistan has nine different ethnic groups that reside in different territories of the country. They have fought and continue to fight civil wars, over culture (religion), legislative power and territory. Afghanistan and the U. S. are similar in their historical oppression of one ethnic group over another. In Afghanistan, the Pashtun/Sunni have for a long time ruled the land and claimed dominion over the Hazara/Shites. The Hazara group can be considered the equivalent to the Black demographic in America where historically they were the slave class, but are currently represented in government. Statistics In a rapidly modernizing world, Afghanistan is among the severely underdeveloped countries of the Middle East. As previously mentioned, Afghanistan is a multiethnic/multifaith, agriculturally based democracy, with a history of violence. And it perhaps it is this history, in addition to deep religious belief systems that have kept this land from joining the rest of the modern world. In reviewing the Millennium Development Goals indicators, data collected by the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), I reviewed several indicators that point to the fact that Afghanistan has a long road ahead. Afghanistan is making slow but sure progress trying to bring itself into a socially, politically and economically stable place. The first indicator measured the number of underweight children less than 59 months. The UNSD defines this indicator as a high number of moderately to severely underweight children, Ã¢â¬Å"whose weights for age are less than two standard deviationsÃ¢â¬ . According to the report a healthy population will have 2. 3 percent of their children in this category. In 2004, 32. 9 percent of AfghanistanÃ¢â¬â¢s children were reportedly underweight, compared to 44. 9 percent in 1997. This indicator points to the poverty level and lack of nourishment recorded within a seven year period in Afghanistan. A second indicator measures womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and representation in government. This indicator is defined as, Ã¢â¬Å"the portion of seats held by women in national parliamentÃ¢â¬ increased from 3. 7 percent in 1990 to 27. 3 percent in 2006. The measurement was sustained through 2012 at 27. 7 percent. More work needs to be done and educating the population should be the place to start. Theological Link The Modernization Theory discussed in the text looks to explain the underdevelopment of countries like Afghanistan. Marx worried about capitalism and the effects it had on the lower-class population and thereby, the democratic process. MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s Conflict Theory dictates that societies are ruled by a small group of elite that create social order for the larger population. In this, we have the creation of divisions by class (division of labor), a central topic of discourse since the beginning of industrialized times. The French Revolution of 1787 (also known as the revolt of the bourgeois or middle-class society) creating capitalism and thereby usurping government power from monarchs. Karl Marx hated democracy. Ã¢â¬Å"Democracy is the road to socialismÃ¢â¬ (Karl Marx) Capitalism created tensions between the working and bourgeois classes. Summary Race and urbanization are indivisibly linked. Marxism and Class Conflict is the most applicable theory of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Considering the current events and status of world order, it is undeniable; capitalism continues to be the most powerful ideology in the world. The United States is a powerful country and the way it retains power is by unwaveringly maintaining capitalistic ideology and participating in global conflict around the world in defense of this ideology, Ã¢â¬Å"power, ideology, and conflict are always closely connectedÃ¢â¬ (Giddens 2012:20). Societies are based on trust and these trusts are broken by the people that create and uphold unjust rules for the population of color and the poor. Works Cited Betancur, John. 2010. Ã¢â¬Å"Gentrification and community fabric in Chicago. Ã¢â¬ Urban Studies Journal Foundation. Sage 48(2): 383 407. Retrieved from http://usj. sagepub. com/content/48/2/383 Giddens, Anthony, Mitchell Duneier, Richard P. Applebaum and Deborah Carr. 2012. Ã¢â¬Å"Introduction to sociology. Ã¢â¬ New York: W. W. Norton and Company. Eighth ed. , pp. 15-78. Massey, Douglas and Nancy A. Denton. 1993. Ã¢â¬Å"The construction of the ghetto. Ã¢â¬ Pp 17-59 in American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making for the Underclass. Harvard University Press. Retrieved from http://ereserve. baruch. cuny. edu. remote. baruch. cuny. edu/eres/coursepage. aspx? cid=3155page=docs United Nations Statistics Division. (1991-2011) [Table Data on Gender Parity Index in Primary Enrollment retrieved November 5, 2012. ] Millenium Development Goals Indicators. Retrieved from http://mdgs. un. org/unsd/mdg/Metadata. aspx? IndicatorId=0SeriesId=559 United Nations Statistics Division. (1991-2011) [Table Data on Gender Parity Index in Primary Enrollment retrieved November 5, 2012. ] Millenium Development Goals Indicators. Retrieved from http://mdgs. un. org/unsd/mdg/Metadata. aspx? IndicatorId=0SeriesId=557.
Monday, January 27, 2020
The video game console market Executive Summary The video game console market is a fast growing market. Sonys PlayStation 3 competes together with Nintendos Wii and Microsofts Xbox 360 for the market leader position. Compared with these competitors, Sonys PS3 includes the newest technologies and provides the highest variety of functionalities. Therefore, Sonys strategy is to target customers who focus on high technologies and multimedia-entertainment. However, this involves that the PS3 competes not only with console manufacturers, but also with other multimedia producers such as PC manufacturers. Due to the fact, that the Sonys PS3 will be quite expensive, the console will be available in a premium edition and in a cheaper basic edition. Considering the distribution of its PS3 games, Sony tries to change its traditional supply chain by providing an Internet platform, where users can download games. This results in saving costs and a faster distribution. Furthermore, the most important marketing tool is the Internet for promoting the PlayStation 3. Blogs, MySpace, YouTube and other kind of websites enable an area-wide promotion of the game console and especially, it is done by consumers. Another important tool is the official website, which offers among others information about the console and about available games. Additionally, Sony promotes its PlayStation 3 together with a meaningful slogan, which differs between Europe (This is living) and U.S. (Play Beyond). Finally, Sonys financing objectives are to sell 15 million exemplars in the first-year and to achieve total sales revenue of $8.25 billion. Its marketing goals are to sell more than 100 million exemplars in the long-run and to become the market leader. 1 Situation Analysis 1.1 Current marketing environment The video game console market is highly influenced from its demographic and technological environment. The worldwide population is growing and more and more people have a strong need for entertainment. Many people require something against boredom in their free time. Furthermore, the technology environment creates a variety of new functionalities which are almost unlimited. According to Moores Law, processor speed and memory capability reduplicate almost every 18 months by constant prices. Additionally, technologies such as High Definition TV provide a new way of entertainment consumption. Finally, another important influence in peoples behavior is enabled by the Internet. Its introduction was a milestone of the new economy. It allows finding almost any required information and enables worldwide communication as well as interaction and it simplifies doing business. 1.2 Current Product Line Before we describe the features and functionalities of Sonys new video game console, the PlayStation 3, we would like to give a short overview of the companys current home video game line: PlayStation (PS1) The Sony PlayStation is the companys first video game console and was produced in the mid-1990s. It belongs to the fifth generation of video game consoles and provides a 32-bit processor. Furthermore, the PlayStation was the first game console that reached the 100 million mark. PlayStation 2 (PS2) Sonys PlayStation 2 is part of the sixth generation era and was released in 2000. Besides its 128-bit processor, it was the fist video game console that provides DVD playback functionality. It placed first in number of units sold in its sixth generation of video game consoles and it became the fastest selling and most popular game console in history, with over 110 million units shipped worldwide by November 2006. PlayStation Portable (PSP) Sonys PlayStation Portable was the companys first handheld game console released in 2004. Besides playing games, it also provides different functionalities such as playing music, watching videos, viewing pictures and using Internet applications. Nowadays, the PSP is the main competitor of Nintendos Game Boy and Nintendo DS. 1.3 Product Analysis The Sony PlayStation 3 (PS3) is the seventh generation video game console and the third in Sonys PlayStation series. The console was launched in North America and Japan in November 2006 and is yet expected to be launched in Europe by March 2007. The reason for its delay in Europe is a shortness of supplies with parts of the Blu-ray drive. The console offers high-end technology and it has been described as an engineering masterpiece because of its promising specification and use of new technology. Furthermore, the PS3 will be available in two different editions on the one hand, a basic edition with a 20 GB hard disk drive (HDD), and on the other hand a premium edition with 60 GB HDD. Nevertheless, both editions will have key elements such the Blu-Ray Disc for High Definition movies, the Cell chip, Giga-bit Ethernet for high speed Internet-connection, and an HDMI connection for optimum output on HDTV. Compared with the basic edition, the premium edition will provide some extra features like support for multiple external memory storage devices (Memory stick, SD) and Wireless connectivity. More information about the specification can you find in the Appendix. Furthermore, Sonys newest game console provides a Linux operating system and some Internet applications such as an Opera Web browser and multiplaying functionality. Finally, another feature of the PlayStation 3 is the backward compatibility to Sonys previous video games for PS1 and PS2. 1.4 Target Markets The following section should provide an overview of Sonys target market and of its targeted customers. 1.4.1 Target market approach In our opinion, Sony should use a segmentation approach as their general strategy to reach targeted customers. Although mass-marketing would create the largest potential market, which leads to the lowest costs and results in lower prices or higher margins, we propose segment marketing because it can create a more fine-tuned product offering and price for the target segment. Moreover, this approach enables to select more easily the best distribution and communication channels, and to have a clearer picture of the main competitors. 1.4.2 Segmenting consumer markets Cultural distinctions, different needs and demands of individuals, and diversities in customers buying behaviours require market segmentation of companies to satisfy their customers effectively. Thereby, the market can be divided in geographic, demographic, psychographic and behavioural segmentation variables and the company can focus on target segments which it wants to attract. According to Sony, the main geographic segments of the PlayStation 3 consist of the Northern America market, the Japanese market and the European market. When Sony released his first video game console PlayStation in 1994, the companys main focus was on the marketplace from 12- to 17-year-old boys. But nowadays, Sonys demographic segmentation divides the market of the PS3 in male and female, old and young players and expands its business vastly to a mainstream entertainment. The PS3 offers a multifaceted repertoire of video games which includes something for everybody. Theres not merely one game to ultimately define the PS3 platform, but rather different must-have games for different segments of consumers. Additionally, an important and profitable demographic segment could be the college market because according to a study by Anderson Analytics GenX2Z only 26 percent of students report not playing video games. Furthermore, Sony concentrates on a strong customer loyalty status in the behavioural segment. Besides its popular brand and the high reputation of its products, the company tries to win over its former consumers by the implementation of a backward compatibility which enables to play video games from its previous video game consoles (PlayStation 1, PlayStation 2). Finally, one of the important target segments of the PS3 involves consumers who require high technology. The company is convinced that its consumers desire and want to get the best out of the best. 1.4.3 Characteristics of the targeted customers / product uses As already mentioned, Sonys targeted customers want to have the newest technologies and functionalities. Moreover, they need an entertainment system which provides functionalities such as viewing pictures, movies or listening music. The Playstation 3 can fulfil all this particular requirements and reach therewith a lot of different customers. First of all, video game players can use the console, because it provides high technology and a lot of different available games. Furthermore, movie lovers can use the PS3 because it involves a DVD drive and also allows watching movies in High Definition with its Blu-Ray drive. Moreover, customers can use the game console to see pictures from their last holidays easily by inserting their memory card in the included card-reader. Finally, customer can use the console to surf in the Internet or to use it instead of a computer, because its Linux operation system provides similar functionalities. Summarized, all members of a family can use the PlayStation 3 for different needs. For instance, children play video games during the day and when the father arrives, he uses the PlayStation to read his emails. Thereafter, the mother inserts the SD card in the PS3 and shows him the pictures from her trip to Stockholm last weekend. And at the evening, the whole family watch a movie together. This multimedia functionality provides the biggest benefit for the PS3s consumers. 1.4.4 Purchasing process Some customers make their decision which game console they want to buy dependent from the number of available games. Not only the functionality and technology, but also the variety of games can be important for the decision-making process of customers. Therefore, the company has to offer information about the games which will be available for its game console. The primary channel for providing such information would be the official webpage. Furthermore, the final end-user of the game console is not always responsible for the purchasing process. For instance, sometimes parents purchase the game console for their children, and therewith another party is involved in the purchasing process. 1.4.5 Market size estimations The number of consumers in the video game console industry increased continuously during the last years. Due to the fact, that game consoles of the newest generation are comparable with an entertainment system, we estimate a market size of 400 million potential users in Europe if everybody would buy the product. Considering that one product would be enough for a family, our final estimation of potential consumers will be 100 million in Europe. Furthermore, a forecast report of PricewaterhouseCoopers has shown that by 2010, the worldwide video game market will grow to $46.5 billion, at an average 11.4% compound annual rate. 1.5 Competitive Analysis Nintendo and Microsoft are the main competitors of Sony in the video game console industry. Considering the seventh generation, Sonys PlayStation 3 compete with Nintendos Wii and Microsofts Xbox 360. These two consoles were released world-wide in November 2006 and November 2005 respectively. According to a study of the NPD Group about the best-selling video game consoles for December 2006, the Xbox 360 sold 1.1 million units, the Wii 604.2 thousand units and the PS3 490.7 thousand units. However, the PS3 sales figures include only the U.S. and Japan market, where it is released already. More details about the competition situation will be discussed in chapter 3 Competition. 1.6 Product/Market Analysis Tools 1.6.1 Product Life Cycle According to Sonys previous game consoles, the PlayStation 3 should have a 10-year product life-cycle. Its state-of-the-art technology involves that the usage of the PS3 resources and technology are just at the beginning and can fulfil all game requirements in the next years. The product life-cycle consists of four different stages: Introduction: At this stage, the sales growth increase slowly when the product is introduced to the market. In Europe, the PS 3 is already located in the middle of this stage, because many game-console lovers and fans have ordered the PS 3 in advance to become one of the first consumers after its release in March 2007. For instance, a new PS 3 is pre-ordered almost each 20 seconds in Great Britain. Growth: At this period, a market acceptance of the product is recognizable and the number of sales units increases. First-users report about the product positively and other consumers are becoming curious. Maturity: A slowdown in sales growth will be at this stage because the product has achieved acceptance by most of the buyers. Decline: Most of the potential buyers have already the product and therewith the number of sales declines. Different marketing strategies are necessary for each stage of the product life-cycle. We will discuss our recommended strategies in6 Marketing Strategy. Due to the fact, that the PlayStation 3 was already released in Japan and U.S., Figure 2 shows that the PlayStation 3 is located in a higher position compared with Europe. After shortness of supplies and an enormous rush demand in Japan and in the United States after the release in November 2006, a kind of stagnation is visible in these both markets today. Vendors report that a large contingent of the PlayStation 3 is still available in their shops. Although Sony sees the reason for that in its optimized supply chain, the company has to consider new marketing strategies to increase its sales. 1.6.2 The Boston Consulting Groups Growth-Share Matrix In the following section, we would like to analyse and classify Sonys game console product portfolio by profit potentials. Therefore, we used the Boston Consulting Group approach presented by Kotler. Due to the fact, that the PlayStation 1 is not be sold anymore, we didnt regard it in our analysis. First, we placed the PlayStation Portable in the Question marks sector, because the market of game handhelds is still growing and as the strongest competitor of the market leader Nintendo DS, the relative market share of the PSP increases. Therefore, Sony has to spend a lot of money in the development and advertising of the PSP to keep up with the fast-growing market, and to overtake the market leader. Additionally, we also placed the PlayStation 3 in the Question marks sector, because the market of the seventh generation video game consoles is still increasing and it is not visible already if the PS 3 will take the position of the market leader. Finally, we located the PlayStation 2 in the Cash cow sector. The PS2 has a falling market growth rate after the release of the next generation game console. Nevertheless, it is still the market leader in its generation and it achieved higher sales units (1.4 million) as the Xbox360 (1.1 million), Nintendo Wii (604.2 thousand), and the PlayStation 3 (490.7 thousand) in December 2006. According to the 10-year product life-cycle, the PS2 is in the decline stage and will stay in the market for the next 3 years yet. 1.7 SWOT Analysis The SWOT analysis is the overall evaluation of a companys strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. It is used as a framework to help an organization develop its marketing strategy. Thereby, strengths and weaknesses are internal factors which can be controlled by an organization, whereas opportunities and threats consist of external factors which are uncontrollable by an organization. 2 Objectives Sonys financial objectives are to: Achieve first-year total sales revenue of $8.25 billion, based on an average price of $550 per unit. Sonys PlayStation 3 marketing objectives are to: Achieve a first-year unit sales volume of 15 million, which represent a projected market share of 25 percent. Increase second-year share to 40 percent and become the market leader. Sell more than 100 million units in the long-term. Arrange for distribution through the leading electric, video games and computer retailer in the top 100 and establish an Internet platform. 3 Competition 3.1 Game console industry According to the industry concept of competition presented by Kotler, an industry is a group of firms that offer a product or class of products that are close substitutes for another product. The structure type of the video game console industry is an oligopoly, because the Japanese Nintendo and Sony, and the U.S. Microsoft dominate the market. Particularly, the structure is a differentiated oligopoly, because only few companies producing products partially differentiated along lines of price and features. Furthermore, the console industry is characterized by large cost of barriers to entry according to Porters model of five competitive forces. It may cost up to $2 billion to develop a competitive console platform and returns on investment may take several years. Furthermore, these three console manufacturers have a similar business model consisting of the following three income flows: Hardware sales Sales of own software/games Licences fees from other software/game developers that use the console platform Finally, Nintendo, Microsoft, and Sony compete on a global basis with core markets in Japan, Europe and in the United States. 3.2 Direct competitors The following section compares the direct competitors Nintendo, Microsoft and Sony with regard to their products, prices, sales units and game range. 3.2.1 Product differentiation Furthermore, both competitors of Sonys PS3 provide an internet platform: Microsoft: Xbox Live Arcade Xbox Live Arcade (XBLA) is an online service that is used to distribute video games to Xbox 360 owners. Thereby, Microsoft offers an Xbox Live Marketplace, a virtual market place, where consumers can download movie and game trailers, game demos, Xbox Live Arcade games, gamer tag images, and Xbox 360 Dashboard themes. The consumers can pay with Microsoft Points, which can be purchased by credit cards. Nintendo: WiiConnect24 It allows distributing content such as software patches and updated game contents while the Wii is on stand-bye. 3.2.2 Price strategy Nintendo offers the cheapest price in the game console market. Therefore, the company dispense with some extra features such as DVD drives or HDTV quality. Contrary, Sonys PlayStation 3 offers the newest technology with a plenty of accessories, but also the highest price. The following list shows the current prices in January 2007: 3.2.3 Market share in Japan and U.S. The following figures show how many game consoles each of the manufacturers has sold in Japan and U.S. during the last months:  Whereas Nintendos Wii was the market leader during the Christmas time in Japan, Microsofts Xbox 360 could sell the most units in the United States. 3.2.4 Games An important criterion for buyers is the volume of games which are available for each game console. At the moment, Microsofts Xbox 360 consists of 82 exclusive games and 132 cross-platform games. In contrary, Nintendo offers 55 exclusive and 96 cross-platform games for its Wii. For Sonys PlayStation 3, 43 exclusive and 77 cross-platform games are planned. 3.3 Market concept of competition Due to the fact, that the PlayStation 3 is more a multimedia centre than only a game console, we have to consider more competitors as only game console manufacturers. Therefore, we used the approach of Rayport and Jaworski to identify direct and indirect competitors by mapping the buyers steps in using the product. The following figure shows the PS3s direct and indirect competitors: Summarized, Sonys PlayStation 3 competes not only with other video game console companies, but also with PC manufactures and other high technology producers. Sonys PS3 offers besides a Linux operating system a plenty of functionalities such as Internet to attract previous PC users and to expand its market. This approach is comparable with Coca-Cola which identifies milk, coffee, tea, and water products as its main competitors. Finally, Figure 7 shows Sonys market position with regard to technology and price compared with its video game console competitors: 4 Product Unique selling proposition The unique selling proposition is a marketing approach to promote a products benefit and to convince customers that the company can deliver it. For Sonys PlayStation 3, the main benefit, especially compared with its competitors, is its functionality as a multimedia centre and its state-of-the-art technology. Nevertheless, Sony has to consider that its targeted consumers are located in different market segments with different demands and wishes. Therefore, the company has to develop different unique selling propositions. First considering the video game hardcore fans segment, these costumers want to have the best and newest technology. Due to the fact, that the PS3 fulfil these requirements at best compared with its competitors, Sony should promote this in its advertisements, especially in game magazines. Furthermore, Sony wants to attract also middle-age consumers and families. The most benefit for these customers is to use the PlayStation 3 as a multimedia system which offers a variety of functionalities. Therefore, the company should focus on its multimedia range. Summarized, the companys unique selling proposition should consist of newest technology and multimedia-functionality. To emphasize this, Sony uses a short slogan after every mention of its products. In the United States, Sony evokes the following slogan: Play Beyond. People should associate therewith that the PS3 is not only a game console which enables playing video games, but also a system which allows playing in High Digital quality and getting a feeling of reality. Furthermore, the PS3 offers more than playing video games, it is a multimedia system that can be used for different pleasures such as Internet surfing or watching movies that can also be interpreted as a kind of playing. However, Sony uses a different slogan for the European market. The reason is that people with few English skills will not understand the impact of Play Beyond or will be interpreted wrongly. Therefore, Sony uses the following slogan in Europe: This is living. The slogan is really simple and uses words which can be understood by not English-speakers. Consumers can associate that the PS3 delivers a kind of living standard and ensures to enjoy living. Furthermore, its a relation to PS3s multimedia functionalities which are desired for every household these days. It emphasizes that the game console is the core of living room entertainment. 5 Distribution 5.1 Supply chain With the video game industry being the fastest growing sector of the growing entertainment industry, the industrys revenue has now reached $26 billion in annual revenue and there is currently no indication of decline in the industry. So, in order to identify how the revenue is distributed, its essential to look at the supply chain of the entire PS3 business. As seen in the supply chain, there are opportunities in many aspects of the console business, coming from the actual console sales as well as extras such as games. The customers, as identified by our segmentation analysis table, are at the end of the supply chain, and their consuming of video games are distributes across several actors. Additionally, the most known among the actors are of course the hardware manufacturers, which include Sony, Nintendo and Microsoft. Except for the revenue coming from the console sales, they also get about 20% of the market price for the games, which are mostly sold in the growth level of the product life-cycle. The additional revenue in the supply chain is split among the other actors. Looking more closely at the publishers and developers, we realize that the publishers are likely to take a large portion of the revenue. Those are the large international companies that have sufficient funds to build a distribution network and employ developers to pull off new best-selling games for the consoles. Hardware manufacturers usually try to pull off deals with these companies when they identify potential best-selling games because the top 3.3% of the games bring in 55% of the sales revenue. For this reason, some hardware manufacturers, most notable Microsoft, tend to buy top-creative publishers to secure exclusive rights of new games for their console. Because of the complexity with world-wide game launches, there are almost always distribution partners in the chain, those accounts for an estimate of 10% of the shelf price. Next are the retail channels, which include online stores as well as retail stores. However, they are becoming increasingly bypassed in the supply chain, as discussed in the next generation supply chain (described in detail below). When they do exist in the supply chain though, they take an estimate of 30% of the shelf price. Developers are a mix of artists and engineers that create the actual games played on the console. Typically, they are funded by the publishers and together they take between 40 to 60% of the shelf price. Notably, in recent years another actor have also entered the supply chain as the industry have grown. Those are the middleware actors. Those create reusable software that is used by developers to increase their productivity in creating games. The reason for the shift towards middleware providers has to do with shifting the focus away from technology, and re-using the technology that is already out there. 5.2 Next generation supply chain As discussed previously, there is a change in the supply chain taking place due to the connectivity and Internet capabilities that are becoming an increasingly integrated part of the console business. As illustrated in Figure 3, we can see how several actors in the supply chain are suddenly not present. Because of using Internet as an enabler of distributing and selling games, the need for distribution and retail is almost gone, whereas a larger piece of the revenue pie can be shared between the manufacturer (e.g. Sony) and the publishers of the games. At the same time, the manufacturer can act as a distributor because its the technology and technique they provide that will actually distribute the game over the Internet to the customer. At the present moment, it remains unclear how much Sony will charge for their part in this supply chain, but its possible that it may be around 47%. 5.3 Business Models There are several business models contributing to the revenue income for the PS3. Obviously, sales of the actual console initially generate the biggest revenue. But, as reported by several news agencies, Sony actually makes a loss on each console bought by a consumer.  As reported by several sources, a PS3 costs between $725 and $905 to manufacture, but is sold for $599 in the US market. The reason for the high manufacturing price is the high cost of components such as the Blu-Ray DVD, XDR memory etc. (More on that chapter 8). To support several streams of revenue there are three business models for distribution supported by the PS3. Since the console is making a loss per sold unit, there are other ways for Sony to catch up on the income and make a profit in the console business through other business models. The business models are: However, comparing the business models for the PS3 tells us that there are several possible models for generating revenue and profit for the console. Most notably, the Internet Gaming via the PlayStation network and the developer licenses are possible sources of potential profit. 6 Marketing Strategy The Playstation 3 has a broad marketing strategy set by Sony. Launched with slogans such as This is living and Play beyond, Playstation 3 is aiming for a large audience. Thereby, Sony will have to apply a different marketing strategy depending on which level of the product-life-cycle the product currently placed in. For example, at this initial state of introduction the most evident need is to market the console itself, to make sure that it reaches as many customers as possible. A suitable strategy for the first year is to get the message out about the capabilities with the console, and a suitable channel for this message is the kind of Internet forums and channels that teenagers and game-players regularly visit, including MySpace, YouTube and Gaming magazine websites. The greatest benefit from using MySpace as a communication channel is that they reach potentially millions of interested customers and can thus get the message out about the console and its possibilities in gaming and entertainment. The idea with this way of communicating through marketing is to inform, entertain and encourage interaction and debate about all the different things the PS3 can do according to a marketing director at Sony. With this particular way of communicating a marketing message, Sony hopes that the PS3 will be the natural choice not only for hardcore games enthusiasts but also anyone interested in the broad capabilities covered by the digital media and content creation that the PS3 offers. So far, the blog approach seems to be successful because an estimate of 86,000 users interacts on the official PS3 blog. For the second year, there is big need to start marketing the games more actively, to make sure the console owners buy as many games as possible. This stage is characterized by growth and Sony needs to put a lot of effort into taking advantage of the growth in the PS3 business. As seen in the financial projections, there is a big need to get the largest parts of the revenue from the game sales. Throughout both years of the product life-cycle, there is a potential growth level, which can be boosted by getting the message out about the games and the game console. In both case the official webpage for the PS3 also works as an important channel for communication to the customers. By customizing the website to the customers depending on their country origin, Sony makes sure they have a clear message customized for each potential customer by letting the customer specify their region and as well as country to get the information in their local language etc. The website provides information about the PS3 specification, advertisement spots and a list of all available games. Furthermore, users can sign in to get the newest information about the PS3 via newsletter and they can also find answers for Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). 6.1 AIDA By looking at the AIDA model that is suitable for the PS3, wed expect it to look like this: A
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Some say time heals all wounds, and I would have to agree with them in some situations. When I was eight or nine, I went through something I thought I would never get over. My parents divorced. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã They had been fighting for awhile, but I never thought that they would actually separate. Then the day after New Years my mom left. I was in shock. My older brother left with her. So it was only my dad, younger brother, and me at the house now. My mom moved into a hotel for awhile, before finding an apartment. My older brother just moved out all together, he did not want to deal with things. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It was very tense between everyone for a long time. My parents did not actually divorce until a year after they separated. It was a bitter dispute. They fought for every little thing they could get. The fight became very expensive, forcing my dad to move my brother and I from our large home in suburbia to an apartment in the city. My mom also moved but she moved further away, in fact all the way down to Texas City from Dallas (where we used to live). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Not too long after that the custody battles started. I think this was what was hardest on my brother and me. My mom was awarded custody first, forcing my brother and me to move after being in a new school and all for only three months. After about a year and a couple moves my dad was awarded custody. For the next few years my brother and me bounced from house to house, new school to new school, having to start fresh each time. Finally after about five years of fighting my parents came to a compromise. They separated my brother and me. I moved in with my dad in Houston, and my brother moved in with my mom in Dallas. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I have now lived with my dad for about three or four years. It was hard adjusting at first, but once I had life has become better. My brother took awhile to adjust also.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
The minor characters in John SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Cannery Row are a contradiction within themselves. Steinbeck shows two conflicting sides to each character; for example, Mack is smart and lazy and some of his colleagues are both good and bad. Doc is a father figure with some bad habits. Dora Flood is a kind-hearted saint who happens to run a brothel. Lee Chong is a shrewd businessman who likes to take advantage of others. Henri is an artist with a French background even though he isnÃ¢â¬â¢t from France. Through his characters, Steinbeck shows that humans are complicated and can have many faces. Mack and his Boys are a group of down-and-out but always devious men who live together in the run-down fishmeal shack, owned by Lee Chong, which they call the Palace Flophouse and Grill. Mack is their ringleader, a smart, charismatic man who can charm anyone into anything; as one of the boys says, Mack could be president of the United States if he wanted to be, but he wouldn't want to do anything like that, being of course that it wasn't fun. Mack's attempts to do things the easy way and to his advantage often get him into trouble. Eddie, another of the boys, is a substitute bartender at La Ida, the local bar. He brings home stolen bottles and a jug filled with remnants from customers' drinks; this makes him immeasurably popular all around. Hazel is perhaps the hardest working of the boys: He often accompanies Doc on collecting trips. Ironically, though, the narrative claims he was too lazy ...